Companies plan to boldly go where no one has toured before.
A room with a view in Russian orbiting space hotel
ZHUKOVSKY, RUSSIA // A hotel in orbit, lunar sightseeing flights and luxury rides into the cosmos - all are part of Russia's vision to ensure it is not left behind in the growing space tourism industry.
Russian firms unveiled their plans at the country's premiere air show this week at Zhukovsky, outside Moscow, saying the race was on to build a new craft to take people into space following the retirement of Nasa's space shuttle in April.
RKK Energia unveiled plans for a replacement shuttle and Orbital Technologies said it hoped to build an orbiting hotel with room for seven guests by 2016. Other plans include flying tourists to the dark side of the moon and, by 2030, to Mars.
"Space tourism is a real and fast-growing business," said Sergei Kostenko, head of Russian firm Orbital Technologies, said at the MAKS air show.
"Whoever builds the first new spaceship now will reap big dividends. "
Although Russia holds a monopoly on rides to space aboard its Soviet-designed Soyuz, it starts at a disadvantage.
Foreign experts say they doubt Russian firms can achieve their ambitious goals because they lack funding and even Russian officials said it would be hard to rival US private sector firms now competing for contracts with Nasa.
Funding for the US space programme is much higher and Nasa is expected to forge ahead with a new generation of craft capable of travelling into deep space, with flights into low orbit outsourced to private firms.
"The US has more possibilities than us right now," said Alexander Derechin, deputy chief designer for Russia's partly state-owned space contractor RKK Energia.
He said the United States had made a "very wise decision" in planning a state-funded spaceship for deep-space flight and that Russia faced tough competition from private companies.
"But we must make a state-funded spaceship, though in such a way that it is also commercially competitive. It is a very difficult task," Mr Derechin said.
A decade after it flew the first US millionaire to space in 2001, Energia plans a six-person shuttle by 2015, which it said would offer a softer landing for the super-rich than its 40-year-old Soyuz craft.
"People paying for the most expensive ticket in the world must be comfortable, not scared," said Vladimir Pirozhkov, who designed the model of the shuttle on show this week. Russia cannot sell tourist seats until 2013.
It is carrying European and US astronauts - for more than US$50 million (Dh183m) a ride - on its single-use Soyuz capsule, the only way of getting to the International Space Station since the US shuttle was retired.
Russian officials say at least one of four US companies at the forefront of the commercial space industry could develop space taxis by 2016 to take astronauts into low Earth orbit, up to an altitude of about 2,000km.
"We don't want to come late to the market," Mr Derechin said.
Orbital Technologies said the planned new spacecraft would be able to take VIP clients to a hotel it plans to build in orbit 350km above Earth, catering for guests paying about $1 million for a five-day stay.
Orbital Technologies' Kostenko said the space hotel would be more comfortable than the space station, but did not promise luxury. Holidaymakers would still have to eat space food, take sponge baths and use vacuum toilets because of weightlessness.
Foreign space officials and experts said they doubted Russian firms would be able to replace the 40-year-old Soyuz, much less launch a space platform, as quickly as planned.