Protests broke out after anti-rebel operations in which at least 13 militants were killed
At least 20 dead after gun battles and protests in Kashmir
Massive anti-India protests erupted in several parts of the Indian-controlled portion of Kashmir on Sunday amid fierce fighting between rebels and government forces that left at least 13 militants and three army soldiers dead.
At least four civilians were killed and dozens injured in the latest round of anti-India protests, which broke out after Indian troops launched counter-insurgency operations targeting mainly the southern parts of disputed Kashmir, where rebels have revived militancy and challenged New Delhi's rule with guns and effective use of social media.
In recent years Kashmiris, mainly youths, have displayed open solidarity with anti-India rebels and sought to protect them by engaging troops in street clashes during military operations against the militants. The protests have persisted despite the Indian army chief warning recently that tough action would be taken against stone throwers during counter-insurgency operations.
Thousands of Kashmiris took to the streets on Sunday, chanting anti-India slogans and demanding an end to Indian rule over Kashmir as troops launched anti-rebel operations in three southern villages.
By the time authorities handed over the bodies of some of the slain rebels to their families, tens of thousands had gathered to attend their funerals while shouting slogans like "Go India, go back" and "We want freedom".
The gun battles – the deadliest this year in Kashmir – began overnight after government forces raided three southern villages following a tip that rebels were hiding there, police said.
They said that after the government forces came under fire, the militants tried to escape from a security cordon while firing their guns and grenades but were killed in the ensuing fighting.
At least 12 militants, including some commanders, were killed in two separate gun battles in the Shopian area, while one rebel was killed and another captured in Anantnag, said top police officer S P Vaid.
Three soldiers were killed and at least six police and soldiers were wounded, Mr Vaid said.
While eight of the dead militants were identified as local cadres of Kashmir's largest rebel group, Hizbul Mujahideen, troops were still clearing the rubble of a house destroyed during a third gun battle where bodies of three militants were lying, he said. Residents said soldiers blasted several civilian homes with explosives while fighting the militants.
The Indian army's chief in Kashmir, Lt Gen A K Bhatt, warned the militants to give up their arms or they would be "neutralised".
"Anybody who uses weapons will be dealt with in the same manner we dealt with the terrorists today," he said.
Top separatist leader Mirwaiz Umar Farooq said Sunday's violence was "more havoc for Kashmiris, who are at the receiving end of execution and repression".
"Kashmiris will continue to die or be forced to pick up arms for resistance as long as India addresses the political and humanitarian problem of Kashmir through a military approach and through force," he said.
No rebel group fighting against Indian rule immediately issued any statement about Sunday's fighting.
As the fighting raged, anti-India protests erupted in several villages in southern Kashmir.
Many protesters also tried to march to the sites of the fighting to help the trapped militants escape, leading to clashes between rock-throwing residents and government forces who fired live ammunition, shotgun pellets and tear gas.
According to hospital officials and police, four civilians were killed and dozens injured, some hit in their eyes by pellets.
Authorities stopped train services and cut mobile phone internet services in the most restive towns, and reduced connection speeds in other parts of the Kashmir Valley, a common government practice aimed at calming tensions and preventing anti-India demonstrations from being organised. They also ordered curfews in some southern areas.
Officials ordered all schools and colleges closed on Monday to stop anti-India protests by students.
Several protests and clashes also erupted in Srinagar and other parts of the disputed region.
Separatist leaders who challenge India's sovereignty over Kashmir have called for a shutdown on Monday.
India and Pakistan each administer part of Kashmir, but both claim it in its entirety.
Pakistan condemned Sunday's violence and expressed solidarity with Kashmiris.
"This mindless killing spree exposes, yet again, the ugly, inhuman face of the state-terrorism that India has been perpetrating against the Kashmiris for decades," Pakistan's foreign ministry said.
Anti-India sentiment runs deep in Kashmir, where in recent years there have been renewed rebel attacks and repeated public protests against Indian rule.
Rebels have been fighting Indian rule since 1989, demanding Kashmir be made part of Pakistan or become an independent country. India accuses Pakistan of arming and training the rebels, a charge Pakistan denies.
Most Kashmiris support the rebels' cause against Indian rule while also participating in civilian street protests against Indian control.
Nearly 70,000 people have been killed in the uprising and the ensuing Indian military crackdown.