The Real Madrid player's honour comes after he had previously won it in 2008, 2013, 2014 and 2016.
Cristiano Ronaldo gets fifth Ballon d'Or to move level with Lionel Messi
Cristiano Ronaldo has won the Ballon d'Or for a fifth time to move level with rival Lionel Messi.
The Real Madrid forward was named the winner of France Football's award at a ceremony in Paris on Thursday.
Ronaldo, 32, previously won the award in 2008, 2013, 2014 and 2016.
Messi finished second in the voting while Neymar, who joined Paris St Germain in a world-record transfer deal this summer, was third.
Chelsea's N'Golo Kante was eighth in the voting, the highest-placed of the seven Premier League players nominated.
Ronaldo has had an outstanding 2017, helping Madrid to a LaLiga, Champions League and Spanish Super Cup treble this year.
The Portugal international has scored a total of 49 goals in all competitions for club and country, and became the first player in Champions League history to score in each of his club's group-stage matches.
Ronaldo and Messi have won the Ballon d'Or between them every year since 2008.
Kante finished eighth, two places ahead of Tottenham's Harry Kane.
Manchester City's Kevin De Bruyne was 14th, Chelsea Eden Hazard 19th and Manchester United goalkeeper David De Gea 20th.
Liverpool pair Sadio Mane and Philippe Coutinho were 23rd and 29th respectively.