Finn will hold the advantage over Ferrari rival Vettel as the two drivers battle it out to finish second in the drivers' standings.
Mercedes driver Bottas sets Yas Marina Circuit record to claim pole for Abu Dhabi Grand Prix
Valtteri Bottas will start Sunday's Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi Grand Prix from pole position.
The Finn surprised his British world champion teammate Lewis Hamilton with the fastest ever lap around Yas Marina Circuit.
His time of 1 minute 36.231 seconds proved too good for Hamilton, who has already sealed his fourth drivers' world championship.
Sebastian Vettel was third for Ferrari, ahead of Daniel Ricciardo's Red Bull Racing car. Kimi Raikkonen was fifth in the second Ferrari with Max Verstappen sixth for Red Bull.
Sunday's race, which consists of 55 laps, begins at 5pm.
GRID PLACEMENTS FOR SUNDAY'S ABU DHABI GRAND PRIX
1. Valtteri Bottas, Mercedes-GP
2. Lewis Hamilton, Mercedes-GP
3. Sebastian Vettel, Ferrari
4. Daniel Ricciardo, Red Bull Racing
5. Kimi Raikkonen, Ferrari
6. Max Verstappen, Red Bull Racing
7. Nico Hulkenberg, Renault
8. Sergio Perez, Force India
9. Esteban Ocon, Force India
10. Felipe Massa, Williams
11. Fernando Alonso, McLaren
12. Carlos Sainz Jr, Renault
13. Stoffel Vandoorne, McLaren
14. Kevin Magnussen, Haas
15. Lance Stroll, Williams
16. Romain Grosjean, Haas
17. Pierre Gasly, Toro Rosso
18. Pascal Wehrelin, Sauber
19. Marcus Ericsson, Sauber
20. Brendon Hartley, Toro Rosso