There needs to be short-term and long-term policies to address the lingering problem between Myanmar's two warring communities, Muslims and Buddhists.
Myanmar must end blame game and accept its Muslims
Time magazine portrayed Wirathu, a prominent Myanmar Buddhist monk, as "The Face of Buddhist Terror" on the cover of its July 1 international edition.
The story has triggered mixed responses and has sparked a campaign to denounce the magazine for linking Buddhism with terror.
The article itself became so controversial and sensitive that the Myanmar government banned the magazine. Ye Htut, spokesperson for President Thein Sein, announced that Time "would not be sold and distributed to prevent the recurrence of racial and religious conflict".
The magazine defended its story and said: "Time's international cover story … shows the presence in Myanmar of an extremist movement that associates itself with Buddhism. Time is pleased by the debate and discussion this important piece has raised."
While the Myanmar government condemned the article, Wirathu said the magazine is not against Buddhism but him. He accuses Muslim extremists of attempting to strip him of his monkhood.
Wirathu's name has been associated with radical ideologies for some time now. Since 2001, he has warned that Muslims will take over Myanmar. He was jailed in 2003 for his radical sermons but released in 2012 as part of a general amnesty.
Wirathu has continued his anti-Muslim rhetoric since his release last year. He is part of the "969" nationalist movement of monks who warn about minority Muslims threatening racial purity and national security. The campaign encourages Buddhists not to do business with Muslims and to only support fellow Buddhist shops.
Wirathu also proposes an inter-religious marriage law that specifies that anyone who marries a Buddhist woman must convert to Buddhism. The draft, if it becomes a law, will also require any Buddhist woman seeking to marry a Muslim man to first obtain permission from her parents and local officials. Those who fail to comply could face up to 10 years in prison and have their property confiscated.
The government's position is that it will not take action against Wirathu for his alleged hate speeches towards the Muslim community for the reason that no complaint has been made by any individual or organisation to the Sangha Maha Nayaka, the committee responsible for reviewing the speeches and sermons of monks.
In the light of this evolving story, what needs to be done in the larger interests of the people?
First of all, it must be understood that Myanmar experienced religious-related violence in 2012 and earlier this year.
The violence between Buddhists and Muslims has led to the death of at least 200 people, by official account, since it began, and has displaced tens of thousands of people from both religious groups.
There needs to be short-term and long-term policies to address the lingering problem between the two communities. The immediate measure should be for the government to contain and control any imminent danger, especially from within radical elements.
This should include taking legal actions on any individual or organisation that engages in activities that incite violence towards other religious groups. The government also needs to put in place a transparent judicial review process by adhering to the principle of equal treatment.
Though freedom of expression should be encouraged, statements hurting the sentiments of other religious groups need to be checked. Similarly, religious freedom needs to be exercised, while simultaneously showing respect for other faiths.
While the short-term strategy should aim to address these pressing needs, the government must also lay out a clear policy and programme to address the legal status of the Rohingya (Bengali) Muslim population. Individuals who are eligible under the 1982 citizenship law must be granted full citizenship rights.
The government must find viable solutions for those ineligible under that same law. This could be explored either through a bilateral engagement with neighbouring Bangladesh, where the Myanmar government says the Bengalis illegally migrated from, or with assistance from the United Nations.
Other remedial policies should include the gradual improvement of relations between Rohingya Muslims and Rakhine Buddhists, and also with the people of Myanmar in general. Given the historical position of the Rohingyas, reconciliation and political integration is likely to prove a great challenge.
A reconciliation programme will have a chance to succeed when Buddhists and Muslims are willing to compromise on their differences by respecting each other's identity and culture.
More importantly, the Myanmar government and the general public must be ready to embrace the Muslims, especially the Rohingyas, if any genuine reconciliation is to be realised.
A blame game will not solve the lingering problems. Such practice can possibly aggravate the simmering situation. The government must pay serious attention to the crux of the problem and embark on an inclusive reconciliation programme.
The international community should extend the necessary support to the Myanmar government to address this delicate issue, but not by pitting one community against another.
Failure to address religious and ethnic conflicts in the country can hinder, if not derail, the democratic transition.
Nehginpao Kipgen is general secretary of the US-based Kuki International Forum