A new flow of images from Syria, on display in Paris, reveals a resurgence in a film industry left in a "field of ruins" by the regime.
Syrian films take flight amid fighting
For half a century, Syria's filmmakers were forced to work under a numbing state censor or choose exile. But a flow of images beamed online from the conflict zone, spotlighted in Paris this week, may contain the seeds of a new Syrian cinema.
The French capital's Forum des Images film centre is featuring some of the gems that have slipped past the censors since the 1970s, alongside raw and urgent images born out of the revolution.
"There are ways to shoot movies in Syria, but you have to be brave," says the filmmaker Meyar Al Roumi, who once resorted to taking TV-star friends along as decoys in order to film without being troubled by the police.
At other times he was not so lucky. In 2007, while working on a portrait of six Damascus taxi drivers, he was denounced by one of them - who turned out to be a secret service worker moonlighting as a taxi driver.
In his 2001 documentary Un Cinema Muet (Cinema on Mute) the Paris-based Al Roumi describes how Syria's National Cinema Organisation managed to choke home-grown filmmaking since the foundation was established in 1963.
He tells of talented directors such as Ossama Mohammad and Mohamed Malas, whose films were screened at the festival, who manage to make just one or two films in a lifetime because they were ground down by the Kafkaesque requirements of the state.
"The regime managed to kill off Syria's cinema just as it was being born," says Charif Kiwan, who founded the production company Abounaddara in Damascus in 2010 to broadcast emerging talent directly online.
"Today it is a field of ruins. There are no cinemas, no funding, filmmakers have to look to foreign festivals and broadcasters - therefore to an audience that is not their own."
That is the case of Al Roumi or the late documentary maker Omar Amiralay, who chose to shoot films without official approval for broadcast on the Al Arabiya or Al Jazeera networks, or the Franco-German Arte.
But the advent of the internet and the sense of urgency brought on by the Syrian conflict has thrown things wide open.
Every Friday, since April of last year, a collective of volunteers formed by Abounaddara has posted a haiku-like short film, between one and five minutes in length, online.
The 44-year-old Kiwan, who coordinates the network from his current base in Paris, pays tribute to the people brave enough to point a camera at a soldier and bear witness to abuses. But he also says a key goal is to counterbalance the flow of raw images coming out of the conflict zone that are then relayed by foreign TV networks who buy hard drives of footage to illustrate their reports.
"That had disastrous consequences," says Kiwan. "Activists started filming with the aim of getting their images on Al Jazeera, shooting only what they wanted to see: a soldier firing at the crowd, a minaret hit by bullets.
"And so the revolution was reduced to a stock image - of people being shot at like rabbits by barbarous soldiers. That is a terrible reality. But if you reduce the revolution to that - none of it makes any sense."
Kiwan works with a network of self-taught filmmakers in Syria, from the age of 20 to 40, a majority of them women, linked via the internet.
"Our idea is to show why people decide to take to the streets, what is going on in their heads, the whole social side of the movement."
Many of the films rely on first-person testimony - from army defectors to ordinary Syrians - their faces obscured. Others are more poetic in their approach, though the conflict is always centre-stage.
"You have a generation that acquired a film culture on social networks, on YouTube, who are totally free and uninhibited," says Kiwan. "The revolution brought them together and I think the future of Syrian cinema will come from them."
Al Roumi, who has been unable to return to Syria since 2010, is closely watching the output of this new generation.
"There have been some wonderful films," he says. "Syrians are making cinema from reality. New filmmakers are bound to emerge from this, although for now the work is still quite raw."
While openly supportive of the Syrian rebels, Abounadarra is determined to keep its film-making open-minded.
"We run films critical of both sides," says Kiwan. "We use humour, derision, we want to make normal cinema with all sort of ingredients."
Their latest post, The Unknown Soldier, shows a defector from the government forces who became a rebel fighter, speaking softly of atrocities he says he witnessed and committed for both sides.
To view the footage coming out of Syria, visit www.facebook.com/pages/Abounaddara-Films/128084573918925 and www.vimeo.com/user6924378