The team are reported to be 'evaluating footage' from the race at Interlagos to see if it shows Vettel performing an illegal overtaking manoeuvre on Toro Rosso's Jean-Eric Vergne.
The Red Bull driver, who narrowly clinched his third world title at the race, could be dropped from sixth to eighth if any protest is upheld - handing the title to Ferrari's Fernando Alonso by a single point.
Spaniard Alonso tweeted cryptically on Tuesday: "I cannot perform miracles. I make miracles within the rules."
According to the FIA's regulations, the governing body has until November 30 to investigate any incidents "likely to have an effect on the result of a championship", so Vettel and Red Bull can expect to learn their fate by this weekend.
The 25-year-old German beat Ferrari's Fernando Alonso by three points to claim his third straight drivers' title and become the youngest triple world champion in the sport's history.
The footage in question shows Vettel passing two points on the circuit where yellow flashing lights are clearly visible - indicating that drivers must not overtake.
Vettel is seen to pass the Toro Rosso of Jean-Eric Vergne while still negotiating this part of the circuit, completing the move yards before he passes a green flashing light, which signals the all-clear.
The FIA could decide to investigate even without a Ferrari protest.
Ferrari, Red Bull and the governing FIA could not be reached for comment.
Watch the footage below:
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