Egypt's fight against corruption has largely focused on high- level corruption by members and confidants of the regime of Hosni Mubarak, but low-level corruption is rife and a much bigger problem, according to anti-corruption activists.
Experts define Egypt as a "soft state", saying that although it has laws to put a stop to graft and corruption it fails to enforce them. Corruption becomes rife as people realise that bribery can protect them from legal scrutiny.
One of the biggest impacts on Egyptians is the inflation rate, which economists say is boosted higher by cartel and monopolistic behaviour in the marketplace. Low-level corruption increases the cost of doing business and buying products in Egypt.
Corruption watchdogs have largely remained unreformed after the uprising that toppled Mubarak because the parliament was dissolved and the government's main focus has been on restoring the economy through macroeconomic initiatives.